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Defamation & Protecting Reputation

A complete guide to acting in defamation and related areas of the law including privacy, breach of confidence, injunctive relief, injurious falsehood, and misleading and deceptive conduct.


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  • “ New South Wales The term ‘subpoena’ is adapted from Latin, but was never a Latin word as such. It has long been an accepted English word. The plural, used in this guide and generally, is therefore ‘subpoenas’, not ‘subpoenae’. ”
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    • “ This guide deals mainly with subpoenas to produce documents, subpoenas ‘duces tecum’. Much of the law related to subpoenas also applies to subpoenas to give evidence, subpoena ‘ad testificandu’, but there are important, mostly practical, differences. A subpoena can also be both a subpoena to ... ”
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    • “ See s 3 and the Dictionary of the Evidence Act 1995: “document” means any record of information, and includes: ”
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    • “ One of the most important things to know about subpoena law is the so called ‘implied undertaking’, also known as the ‘Harman undertaking’, or the ‘Hearne v Street undertaking’. The common law provides that production of and access to documents under subpoena, even without any other court order, ... ”
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    • “ One needs a good understanding of the law and practice relating to subpoenas to be able to advise and assist clients who receive a subpoena. Such an understanding will then make you far better equipped to draft and issue subpoenas for clients who are parties to litigation. Once you understand and ... ”
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    • “ Recipients of subpoenas are usually strangers to the court case in which the subpoena is issued. The subpoena comes as a surprise and an unwelcome imposition. Unless they are familiar with litigation, or have received subpoenas before, they will be unlikely to know what to do and may feel angry, ... ”
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      • “ Unfortunately, given the unwelcome impost that a subpoena constitutes, one of the most common responses for clients who receive a subpoena is to ignore it and hope it goes away. This, of course, almost never works. A subpoena is a court order. It cannot be ignored. Failure to comply with it may ... ”
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      • “ At the other end of the spectrum, is another inappropriate but very common response to a subpoena, especially a poorly drafted one which calls for ‘All documents about X’, where your client receives the subpoena and immediately brings their life and/or their business to a screaming halt so that ... ”
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      • “ It is important to read a subpoena carefully when it is received as there is a lot of helpful information on the subpoena itself such as: Out of which court and in what type of proceedings was it issued? For example, is it a criminal, civil or family law case? ”
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      • “ The majority of subpoenas are not objectionable, or at least perhaps not worth objecting to. A reasonably precise call in a subpoena for a limited number of clearly identifiable and uncontroversial documents, that your client has in their possession or control and that are clearly relevant to the ... ”
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      • “ Once instructions have been taken and the scope of the subpoena considered, if there are, or may be, any objections they should be communicated to the issuing party. Documents should not be produced until the objection is either resolved or, depending upon the nature of the objection, until ... ”
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      • “ In criminal cases s 225 Criminal Procedure Act 1986 provides that a person named in a subpoena is not required to produce any document or thing if it is not specified or sufficiently described in the subpoena. This is basically a matter of common sense. If a subpoena does not describe something, ... ”
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      • “ The threshold issue for production of documents under any subpoena is the requirement that there be a legitimate forensic purpose (LFP) for the documents sought. If there is not, then the subpoena, or the objectionable part of it, will be set aside as an abuse of process. There is extensive ... ”
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      • “ In criminal cases Alister and Saleam have been applied, and the ‘on the cards’ test approved, in cases such as Attorney General for New South Wales v Dylan Chidgey [2008] NSW CCA 65 and Perish v R; Lawton v R [2015] NSWCCA 237 at [56] – [57]. There is always a difficult balancing act for a court ... ”
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      • “ The leading civil case is Waind v Hill and National Employers’ Mutual General Association [1978] 1 NSWLR 372 per Moffitt P at 379-382 and was followed in such cases as A v Z [2007] NSWSC 899; ICAP Pty Ltd & Ors v Moebes & Anor [2009] NSWSC 306 and McLaughlin v Dungowan Manly Pty Ltd [2009] NSWSC ... ”
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      • “ In the federal jurisdiction, the requirement for an issuing party to establish LFP is well recognised via such cases as: Re Trade Practices Commission v Arnotts Limited; Arnott’S Biscuits Limited; Fledspac Pty Limited and the Dickens Corporation Pty Limited [1989] FCA 248; ”
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      • “ Subpoenas in family law cases, even though they are civil cases and the above federal authorities apply, are effectively a different category. In the family law jurisdiction, there are no pleadings as such, merely an Application and a Response, supported by affidavit evidence and almost anything ... ”
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      • “ Most often the LFP objection will relate to the breadth of the subpoena - the failure to limit the call in the schedule to identifiable and relevant documents only, thereby potentially capturing documents for which there is no LFP. Often a subpoena will be drafted carelessly so as to seek ... ”
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      • “ A subpoena may be oppressive if it places an undue burden on the producing party to produce documents that do not have sufficient relevance. This is a balancing exercise, intrinsically connected to LFP. Where a subpoena causes unreasonable trouble and expense to your client then an objection is ... ”
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      • “ Public interest immunity (PII) is a substantive common law privilege and can be claimed by governments over confidential information, the disclosure of which would damage the public interest. It was articulated in Alister v R (“Hilton Bombing case”) [1984] HCA 85 and has frequently been claimed, ... ”
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      • “ There are numerous pieces of legislation which protect documents from production under subpoena. Mostly, those documents will be held by government departments or agencies. In many of those instances, there is no point issuing a subpoena for such documents as they cannot and will not be produced ... ”
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      • “ Legal Professional Privilege (LPP) is a complex area. It exists in both common law and by virtue of ss 117-119 Evidence Act 1995 and it depends which jurisdiction you are in as to which iteration applies. Both forms of the privilege apply the dominant purpose test: Esso Australia Resources v ... ”
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    • “ If the subpoena is pressed over your objection you will need to file a Notice of Motion, or an Application in a case in the federal jurisdiction, asking for an order to set it aside and/or seeking orders that your client be excused from producing any material on an appropriate ground, for example, ... ”
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    • “ A subpoena is a court order requiring production of stated documents to the court. Even if you object, unless the objection is for oppression or relates to a claim of privilege, in which case see Hancock v Rinehart (Privilege) [2016] NSWSC 12 and the discussion of legal professional privilege ... ”
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    • “ It is common that the recipient does not produce the required documents within the time stipulated in the subpoena. In the event this occurs, the recipient and issuing party should agree on a later date for production. The issuing party should then attend court on the return date and advise the ... ”
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    • “ As a subpoena is an order of the court, any failure to comply is contempt of court and the non-complying recipient can be dealt with for contempt. Rule 33.12 Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005 provides for this explicitly. The rules also provide for an arrest warrant to issue where non-compliance ... ”
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    • “ When a subpoena is issued the documents are produced to the court, not to you. This is fundamental and clearly stated on the subpoena. However, it is surprising how often subpoena recipients, especially those who have not had much prior experience with court proceedings, will respond to a subpoena ... ”
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    • “ It is important to know how access orders are dealt with in different courts. In the Supreme Court, for example, unless any objection is made to the court at the time of production, the access order that will apply is the one noted on the subpoena by the issuing party, otherwise general access ... ”
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$89 AUD + GST

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Train Your Staff Affordably

Reduce Your Practice Risks

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